American Year Book and National Register

Subject: Massachusetts
Source: The American Year-Book and National Register for 1869; pp. 364-375


Capital, Boston. Area, 7,800 square miles. Population, (1865), 1,267,031.

This State includes the original colonies of Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay; the former was settled at Plymouth, in 1620, and the latter at Salem, in 1628. The colonies remained under separate governments until united by the charter of 1688. Massachusetts was one of the original thirteen States, adopted a constitution in 1780, and ratified the constitution of the United States in 1788.


Governor William Chaflin Newton $5,000
Lieutenant Governor Joseph Tucker Lenox 1
Secretary Oliver Warner Northampton   2,500
Treasurer and Receiver General Jacob Loud Plymouth   3,000
Auditor Henry S. Briggs Pittsfield   2,500
Attorney General Charles Allen Boston   3,500
Sec. Board Education Joseph White Williamstown   3,000
Sec. Board Agriculture Charles L. Flint Boston   2,500


First M. S. Underwood Dennis.
Second Charles Endicott Canton.
Third Thomas Rice, Jr. Newton.
Fourth Otis Norcross Boston.
Fifth Roland G. Usher Lynn.
Sixth Thomas Talbot Billerica.
Seventh Charles Adams, Jr. N. Brookfield.
Eighth Horatio G. Knight Easthampton.


Gov. and Commander-in-Chief William Chaflin Newton
Major General Benjamin F. Butler Gloucester.
Adjutant and Inspector General James A. Cunningham Boston.
Assistant Adjutant General Nehemiah Brown Boston.
Quartermaster General John H. Reed Boston.
Deputy Quartermaster General Samuel E. Chamberlain Cambridge.
Surgeon General William J. Dale Andover.
Assistant Surgeon General Anson P. Hooker Cambridge.

The Governor, Lieutenant Governor, Secretary, Treasurer, Auditor, and Attorney General are chosen by the legal voters of the State on the Tuesday after the first Monday in November, annually, and hold office one year from the first Wednesday in January. Eight councilors, one from each council district, the senators, 40 in number, and representatives, 240 in number, are chosen at the same time as the Governor, and hold office for one year. The Senate and House of Representatives constitute the Legislature, styled the "General Court of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts."

The pay of Councilors is $5 for each day's attendance, and $2 for every ten miles of travel. The pay of Senators and Representatives, $5 for each day's attendance at the session, and $1 for every five miles of travel from place of abode. The President of the Senate and Speaker of the House receive $10 for each day's attendance.

Every male citizen, 21 years of age, able to read the constitution in the English language, and write his name, who has resided in the State one year, and in his election district six months, and has paid a tax within two years, is entitled to vote. Paupers and persons under guardianship are excluded.


The Supreme Judicial Court consists of one Chief Justice and five Associate Justices. It has exclusive cognizance of all capital crimes, and exclusive chancery jurisdiction so far as chancery powers are conferred by statute, and concurrent original jurisdiction of all civil cases where the amount in dispute exceeds $4,000 in Suffolk county, and $1,000 in the other counties.

The Superior Court consists of a Chief Justice and nine Associate Justices. It has civil jurisdiction in all cases where the amount in controversy exceeds $20, and criminal jurisdiction in all, except capital cases. The judges of both courts are appointed by the Governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Council, and hold their offices during good behavior.


Circuit Judge, Nathan Clifford. District Judge, John Lowell. District Attorney,George S. Hillard. Asst. District Attorneys, W. A. Field, H. D. Hyde. Marshal, George L. Andrews. Deputy Marshals, J. B. Keyes, W. S. Cobb, S. W. Richardson. Clerk Circuit Court John G. Stetson. Clerk District Court, Seth E. Sprague.


   Chief Justice. Reuben A. Chapman, Springfield.
   Associate Justices, Ebenezer R. Hoar, Concord; Horace Gray, Jr., Boston; Dwight Foster, Boston; John Wells, Chicopee; James D. Colt, Pittsfield.
   Reporter, Albert G. Browne, Jr., Boston. Clerk, George C. Wilde, Boston. Assistant Clerk, George W. Nichols, Boston. Salary of Chief Justice, $5,500; of Associate Justices, $5,000.


   Chief Justice, Seth Ames, Boston.
   Associate Justices, Julius Rockwell, Pittsfield; Otis P. Lord, Salem; Marcus Morton, Andover; Ezra Wilkinson, Dedham; Henry Vose, Springfield; John P. Putnam, Boston; Lincoln F. Brigham, New Bedford; Chester J. Reed, Taunton; Charles Devens, Jr., Worcester. Salary of Chief Justice, $4,500; of each Associate Justice, $4,200.


   Northern District, Isaac S. Morse, Lowell. Eastern District, Edgar J. Sherman, Lawrence. Southern District, George Marston, Barnstable. South Eastern District, Edward L. Pierce, Milton. Middle District, William W. Rice, Worcester. Western District, Edward B. Gillett, Westfield. North Western District. Samuel T. Spaulding, Northampton. Suffolk County, J. Wilder May, Boston; Assistant, Patrick R. Guiney.
   Salary of Attorney for Suffolk County, $3,500; of Assistant, $2,100; of each of the others, except in the North Western District, $1,500; in N. W. District, $1,000.


   For Barnstable and Dukes Counties, at Barnstable, 1st Tuesday of May; Berkshire Co., at Lenox, 2d Tuesday of May; Bristol Co., at New Bedford, 2d Tuesday of November, and at Taunton, 3d Tuesday of April; Essex Co., at Salem, 3d Tuesday of April, and 1st Tuesday of November; Franklin Co., at Greenfield, 2d Tuesday of April; Hampden Co., at Springfield, 4th Tuesday of April; Hampshire Co., at Northampton, 3d Tuesday of April; Middlesex Co., at Lowell, 3d Tuesday of April, and at Cambridge, 3d Tuesday of October; Nantucket Co., at Nantucket, 1st Tuesday of July; Norfolk Co., at Dedham, 3d Tuesday of February; Plymouth Co., at Plymouth, 2d Tuesday of May; Suffolk Co., at Boston, 1st Tuesday of October and April; Worcester Co., at Worcester, 2d Tuesday of April.
   As the Supreme Judicial Court for the Commonwealth, it holds a law term in Boston on the first Wednesday of January, in each year, which term may be adjourned from time to time, to such places and times as may be most conducive to the dispatch of business, and the interests of the public; and all questions of law, whether arising upon appeal, exception, or otherwise, and from whatever court, are therein entered and determined, if the same arise in either of the following counties: Suffolk, Middlesex, Norfolk, Plymouth, Bristol, Barnstable, Dukes, or Nantucket.
   Law terms of this court are also held, annually, for Berkshire Co., at Lenox, 2d Tuesday of September; Hampden Co., at Springfield, 3d Monday at 1st Tuesday of September; Hampshire and Franklin Co's, at Northampton, Monday next after 2d Tuesday of September; Worcester Co., at Worcester, 4th Tuesday after 1st Monday of September; Plymouth Co., at Plymouth, 3d Tuesday of October; Bristol Co., at Taunton, 4th Tuesday of October. On May 1, 1868, a law term was established at Salem, for 1st Tuesday of November, annually.


Balance on hand, January 1st, 1868, $  2,363,895.67
Receipts on account of Ordinary Revenue, 5,109,936.23
Receipts on account of Sundry Funds, 10,921,320.69


Payment on account of Ordinary Expenses, $  5,908,678.48
Payment on account of Sundry Funds and Loans, 11,324,541.31
Cash on hand January 1st, 1869,   1,161,932.80


   The total debt of the Commonwealth on the first day of January, 1869, was $27,735,870.05.
   The debt may conveniently be classified as follows: The railroad debt, the ante-war debt, the war debt, and the temporary debt. The amount of these several classes of debt, January 1, 1869, was as follows:

The Railroad Debt $  9,142,176.00
      Ante-War Debt 1,092,000.00
      War Debt 16,573,244.00
      Temporary Debt   928,450.05

The Railroad Debt is composed of the following:

       Norwich and Worcester Railroad Debt     400,000.00
The Western Railroad Debt $  3,578,696.00
       Eastern Railroad Debt       200,000.00
       Boston, Hartford and Erie Railroad Debt       290,400.00
       Troy and Greenfield R. R. and Hoosac Tunnel Debt   4,673,080.00


By the Act of 1862, the principal and interest of all scrip or bonds of the Commonwealth are required to be paid in gold or silver coin. This applies to the whole funded debt, except the Massachusetts war loan of $3,505,000, issued in 1866-7, which is a 6 per cent. currency 5-20 scrip.


  1866. 1867. ESTIMATE FOR
State Tax $3,000,000.00 $5,000,000.00  
Savings Bank Tax 311,848.33 361,889.35 370,000.00
Corporation Tax, net receipts 1,210,694.56 1,498,937.49 346,000.00
Coal and Mining Companies' Tax 31,598.79 31,292.61 31,000.00
Semi-Annual Insurance Tax 113,103.28 121,188.31 121,000.00
Annual Tax on Insurance by Foreign Co's 64,566.92 80,355.82 80,000.00
Life Insurance Companies' Tax 5,631.96 8,757.22 8,700.00
Courts of Insolvency Fees 2,989.18 5,638.25 5,600.00
Gas Light Companies' Tax 2,989.18 5,638.25 5,600.00
Alien Passengers 24,038.58 22,479.50 22,500.00
From Cities and Towns for Support of Paupers 6,214.59 6,452.82 6,400.00
Alien Estates 3,907.24 657.01 1,000.00
Income from State Prison 90,260.32 118,011.10 25,000.00
Income from Reform Schools 18,735.36 23,517.02 23,500.00
Income from State Alms-houses 1,823.42 4,066.12 5,000.00
Secretary's Fees and Commissions 8,154.95 5,227.32 5,000.00
Income from Funds 161,828.26 208,677.92  
Pedlers' Licenses 3,000.00 15,580.00 15,000.00
Interest on Deposits 29,203.08 42,633.74 40,000.00
Miscellaneous  203,936.39   42,261.87   15,00.00
  $5,299,683.17 $7,605,642.47 $1,128,700.00



  1866. 1867. ESTIMATE FOR
Legislature $247,123.57 $284,860.65 $238,000.00
Executive Department 19,878.40 25,623.74 25,000.00
Secretary's Department 24,939.46 24,120.90 24,000.00
Treasurer's Department 15,627.08 12,856.38 13,000.00
Tax Commissioner's Bureau 14,002.31 14,728.61 14,500.00
Auditor's Department 10,660.88 11,883.64 12,000.00
State House Expenses 20,433.95 12,041.01 30,500.00
State Printing 46,267.94 54,736.82 55,000.00
Judiciary 203,326.85 194,849.14 213,600.00
Insurance Commissioner 2,579.71 14,160.63 23,500.00
Scientific 33,347.60 21,361.92 27,000.00
Charitable 391,482.26 424,752.63 440,000.00
Military 203,075.75 213,015.32 200,000.00
Reformatory and Correctional 330,075.22 371.207.69 250,000.00
Corporation Tax2 960,650.42 1,122,815.82  
Miscellaneous   14,270.22   13,380.00     5,000.00
  $2,537,741.62 $2,816,394.90 $1,571.100.00
Extraordinary and Exceptional Expenses 4,192,971.67 4,195,909.64  
           Total $6,730,713.29 $7,012,304.54  



   There are 17 different and distinct funds held by the Treasurer of the Commonwealth. Of these, 9 are sinking funds established to secure the redemption at maturity of certain classes of State scrip, to provide means for the erection of buildings for charitable and correctional institutions; the enlargement of the State House; the improvement of the Back Bay lands, (Boston), and in aid of certain railroad enterprises. Five of the remaining funds are for educational purposes, and two for the maintenance and support of bridges. The amount of these funds, on the 1st of January, 1868, was $10,948,192.44; December 31, 1868, it was more than $12,000,000.


   This State has either by legislative action or private contributions and efforts, established educational institutions of all grades and for all classes, which are maintained with commendable liberality.
   Harvard University at Cambridge, the oldest college in the country, has, besides its under-graduate course, faculties of divinity, law, medicine, philosophy, and science. The Lawrence Scientific School, founded through the munificence of the late Hon. Abbott Lawrence, and connected with the University is amply endowed, and has the finest Museum of Scientific Zoology in the country. There are five other incorporated colleges, and fifty-five incorporated academies, many of which have a well-merited reputation for excellence. The Law and Medical Schools of Harvard University, and the Theological Seminaries at Andover, Cambridge, and Newton, have given a professional education to many students from other States as well as from Massachusetts.
   The Board of Education, which consists of the Governor, Lieutenant Governor, and eight members appointed by the Governor and Council, has the general oversight of the Normal Schools, Public Schools, and of Educational Statistics. The trustees, officers, or persons in charge of every institution of learning, whether literary, scientific or professional, public or private, and of all reform schools or alms houses, are by law required to report to the Board on or before the first day of June in each year, giving such statistics as the Board shall prescribe. The Board appoints a Secretary who is its chief executive officer, and who gives his whole time to the supervision and improvement of Common Schools. Each town elect a School Committee of three persons, or a number which is a multiple of three, who examine teachers, visit schools, and have a general oversight of the schools of the town. In the cities and some of the larger towns, the school committee appoints a superintendent who has the immediate charge of the schools. The number of school districts is annually diminishing, there being 323 less in 1867 than in 1866, and 672 less than in 1861. Where the districts are abolished, the schools are managed entirely by the towns. Each town having 500 or more families is by law required to maintain a public high school.
   Provision for the special education of teachers is made in four State Normal Schools, two of which are for both sexes, and two for female teachers only. A Girls' High and Normal School, and an efficient Training School, are also maintained by the city of Boston, for preparing teachers for primary schools. Teachers' Institutes are held annually under the direction of the Secretary of the Board of Education.


   PUBLIC SCHOOLS. Number of cities and towns, 335; number of school districts, 1,935; number public schools, 4,838; number of persons between 5 and 15 years of age, 261,498; number of scholars of all ages in public schools,--in summer, 235,241; in winter, 237,364; average attendance,--in summer, 189,149; in winter, 190,954; ratio of mean average attendance for the year, 73; number attending public schools under 5 years of age, 3,899; over 15 years, 21,976.
   Number of teachers in summer--males, 439; females, 5,287; total 5, 726; number of teachers in winter--males, 936; females, 4,871; total, 5,807; number of different teachers during the year: males, 1,020; females, 6,739; total 7,759. Average wages of male teachers per month, $55.92; female teachers, $26.44; average length of public schools, 8 months and 2 days.
   Amount raised by taxes for support of public schools, $2,355,505.96; amount received fro surplus revenue and similar funds, $4,443.64; voluntary contributions, $32,370.90; income of local school funds for schools and academies, $69,208.06; income of state school funds received by towns and cities, $62,641.15; aggregate amount expended for public schools, exclusive of building and repairing school houses, $2,531,740.62; amount for each child in the state between 5 and 15, $9.72; number of high schools, 148; number of cities and towns maintaining high schools, 110.
   ACADEMIES AND PRIVATE SCHOOLS. Number of incorporated academies, 55; average number of scholars, 3,696; amount paid for tuition, $143,522.79; number of private schools and academies, 553; estimated average attendance, 14,417; tuition in same, $416,194.13.
   NORMAL SCHOOL, Bridgewater. A. G. Boyden, Principal. Number of pupils admitted in 1867,--ladies, 35; gentlemen, 11; total, 46. Average age of ladies, 18.5 years; of gentlemen, 19.8 years. Number who had previously taught,--ladies, 16; gentlemen, 3; total, 19. Whole number in attendance in 1867,--ladies, 73; gentlemen, 28; total, 101. Graduates,--ladies, 21; gentlemen, 5; total, 26. Whole number of pupils since the commencement of the school, 1,586; whole number of graduates, 1,001.
   NORMAL SCHOOL, Framingham. Miss Annie E. Johnson, Principal. Number of pupils admitted in 1867, 58; number graduated, 44; number left without graduation, 97; whole number for the year, 159. Average age of advanced class, 21.25 years; of senior class, 20.2 years; of other classes, 18 years.
   NORMAL SCHOOL, Salem. D. B. Hagar, Principal Number of pupils admitted in 1867, 82; average age, 18.12; number who had previously taught, 18; whole number of pupils in 1867, 195; number of graduates, 41; whole number of pupils since the opening of the school in 1854, 1,087; whole number of graduates, 463.
   NORMAL SCHOOL, Westfield. J. W. Dickinson, Principal. Number of pupils admitted in 1867,--ladies, 70; gentlemen, 14; total, 84. Average age of ladies, 18.9 years; of gentlemen, 18.6 years. Whole number of pupils in 1867,--ladies, 146; gentlemen, 18; total, 164. Graduates, 30. Whole number of pupils since the opening of the school, 1,862; of graduates, 412.


   The Charitable Institutions are under the charge of a Board of State Charities which has under its care 10 institutions owned by the state, viz: 3 Lunatic hospitals; 4 Pauper establishments; and 3 Juvenile Reformatories. There are also 11 institutions aided by the state, either by the support of indigent persons connected with them, or by specific appropriations. The Lunatic Hospitals, located at Northampton, Taunton, and Worcester, all receive state, town, and private patients, but the state patients at Northampton are chiefly persons transferred as incurable from the other hospitals. The institutions are in good condition, and seem to have been wisely managed, but the Board recommends some changes in their organization and material arrangement, which are indicated in certain cardinal principles which it proposes to observe in its action. These are:

  1. That it is better to separate and diffuse the dependent classes than to congregate them.
  2. That we ought to avail ourselves as much as possible of those remedial agencies which exist in society: the family, social influences, industrial occupations, and the like.
  3. That we should enlist, not only the greatest amount of popular sympathy, but the greatest number of individuals and of families in the care and treatment of the dependent.
  4. That we should avail ourselves of responsible societies and organizations which aim to reform, support or help any class of dependents; thus lessening the direct agency of the state and enlarging that of the people themselves.
  5. That we should build public institutions only in the last resort, and that these should be kept as small as is consistent with a wise economy.

   The harmless insane, the idiotic, the aged and helpless paupers are placed at the alms house at Tewksbury; children of proper school age are sent to Monson where the state has a primary school, and persons sentenced to a workhouse are confined at Bridgewater.
   The State Reform School for boys, at Westborough, and the Massachusetts Nautical School established on board two ships at Boston and New Bedford, are the principal juvenile reformatories for boys; at the former, the pupils, when not in school, are employed in seating chairs, making boxes, farm labor and domestic work.During the appropriate season, more than 100 boys were employed upon the farm and gardens. Boys are selected from the higher grades of behavior, and placed in three family houses connected with the institution. The Farm House and the Garden House, each receiving 30; and the Peters' House, for younger boys, 24 at a time. For the year 1867, the value of produce raised by the Garden House family was $4,246.23, and $361.49 was received for seating chairs; total, $4,607.72. By the Farm House family, produce raised, $3,455.04; received for seating chairs, $263.77; total, $3,718.81. At the Peters' House, the value of produce was $920.49, and of paper baskets and husk mats made, $315.34; total, $1,235.93.
   The State Industrial School for Girls was inaugurated in 1856. The family system has been adopted, there being five families, with accommodations for 30 girls in each, where Christian influences are thrown around the inmates.
   The School for Idiotic and Feeble Minded Youth, at South Boston, and the Perkins' Institution and Massachusetts Asylum for the Blind, are for most purposes, regarded as state institutions, receiving indigent pupils, and mainly supported by state appropriations.
   The Massachusetts General Hospital, the Eye and Ear Infirmary, the Washingtonian Home, the Discharged Soldiers' Home, the Temporary Asylum for Discharged Female Prisoners, the Home for the Friendless, the New England Moral Reform Society, and the Agency for Discharged Convicts, also receive aid from the State, and an annual appropriation is made for education state pupils at the "Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb," in Hartford, Conn., and at the Clarke Institution for Dear Mutes, Northampton.

   STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, Worcester. Merrick Bemis, M. D., Superintendent. Number of patients in the hospital, Oct. 1st, 1866,--males, 190; females, 191; total, 381. Admitted during the year,--males, 154; females, 134; total, 288. Whole number under treatment during the year,--males, 344; females, 325; total, 669. Number of patients discharged during the year,--males, 167; females, 148; total, 314;--recovered, 158; improved, 101; unimproved, 12. Number died during the year,--males, 26; females, 17; total, 43. Remaining Sept. 30th, 1867,--males, 177; females, 178; total, 355. Of the 288 admitted during the year, 126 were State patients; at the beginning of the year 129 of this class were in the hospital; at the close, 101. Of those discharged as recovered, 63 had been under treatment not more than 3 months; 47 from 3 to 6 months; 28 from 6 months to a year; and 20 for a longer period. Supposed cause of insanity of those admitted during the year,--epilepsy, 16; ill health, 85; paralysis, 16; old age, 5; turn of life, 13; puerperal, 8; loss of friends, 5; domestic trouble, 4; intemperance, 20; masturbation, 20; miscellaneous and unknown, 87; total, 288. There were, unmarried, 133; married, 120; widowed, 33; unknown, 2. Occupation of those admitted of males,--blacksmiths and iron-workers, 4; clerks, 9; farmers, 17; laborers, 40; merchants, 6; machinists, 6; mill operatives, 12; physicians, 4; restaurators, 4; boot and shoe makers, 15; miscellaneous, or with no occupation, 10. Age of those admitted,--less than 15 years of age, 3; 15 to 20, 18; 20 to 30, 63; 30 to 40, 71; 40 to 50, 62; 50 to 60, 35; 60 to 70, 23; 70 to 80, 9; 80 to 90, 4. Whole number admitted since Jan. 18th, 1833, 7,902; whole number discharged, 7,547; as recovered, 3,715; improved, 1,520; not improved, 1,351; died, 961; eloped, 3; males admitted, 3,937; discharged, 3,787; recovered, 1,791; died, 491; females admitted, 3,965; discharged, 3,787; recovered, 1,924; died, 470.
   STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, Taunton. George C. S. Choate, Superintendent. Number in institution Sept. 30th, 1866,--males, 163; females, 178; total, 341. Number admitted during the year,--males, 129; females, 136; total, 265; committed by court, 207; from State alms houses, 5; boarders, 53. Whole number under treatment,--males, 292; females, 314; total, 606. Number admitted in the autumn, 69; winter, 51; spring, 71; summer, 74. Number discharged,--males, 85; females, 99; total, 184; recovered, 90; improved, 32; unimproved, 62. Number remaining Sept. 30th, 1867,--males, 179; females, 197; total, 376. Age of those admitted,--under 20, 18; 20 to 30, 73; 30 to 40, 70; 40 to 50, 44; 50 to 60, 28; 60 to 70, 21; 70 to 80, 7; over 80, 4. Civil condition,--married, 108; unmarried, 129; widowed, 28. Nativity,--Americans, 129; Americans, Irish parents, 5; Irish, 117; German, 10; miscellaneous, 4. Causes of insanity,--ill health, 49; intemperance, 41; masturbation, 7; religious excitement, 9; domestic trouble, 9; child-birth, 5; epilepsy, 8; injury, 6; loss of friends, 7; old age, 6; sunstroke, 8; miscellaneous or unknown, 110. Whole number admitted since the opening of the institution, 3,117; discharged, 2,145; recovered, 1,182; improved, 329; unimproved, 634.
   STATE LUNATIC HOSPITAL, Northampton. Pliny Earle, Superintendent. Number in hospital Sept. 30th, 1866,--males, 182; females, 223; total, 405. Admitted during the year,--males, 61; females, 77; total, 138. Whole number,--males, 243; females, 300; total, 543. Discharged,--males, 45; females, 38; total, 83; recovered, 41; improved, 33; unimproved, 9. Died,--males, 23; females, 24; total, 47. Remaining Sept. 30th, 1867,--males, 175; females, 238; total, 413. Supposed causes of insanity,--ill health, 11; epilepsy, 14; intemperance, 14; overwork, 6; anxiety, 13; hereditary, 11; miscellaneous or unknown, 69. Occupation of males,--farmers, 10; laborers, 8; merchants, 8; clerks, 4; mechanics, 11; miscellaneous, or with no occupation, 20. Civil condition,--married, 52; unmarried, 67; widowed, 14; unknown, 5. Ages of those admitted,--from 10 to 20, 4; 20 to 30, 35; 30 to 40, 39; 40 to 50, 28; 50 to 60, 18; 60 to 70, 10; 70 to 80, 4. Nativity,--Americans, 81; Irish, 46; miscellaneous or unknown, 11.
   STATE ALMS HOUSE, Tewksbury. Thomas J. Marsh, Superintendent. Number in the institution Oct. 1st, 1866, 707; admitted during the year, 2,689; discharged during the year, 2,710; supported, 3,396; deaths, 260; births, 76; remaining Oct. 1st, 1867, 686. In the Asylum for Harmless Insane, there were, Oct. 1st, 1866,--males, 74; females, 71; total, 145; admitted during the year,--males, 86; females, 131; total, 217; making the whole number admitted,--males, 160; females, 202; total, 362. Absconded during the year,--males, 21; females, 1; total, 22. Discharged by Board,--males, 13; females, 24; total, 37. Died,--males, 29; females, 26; total, 55. Whole number discharged,--males, 63; females, 51; total, 114. Remaining Oct. 1st, 1867,--males, 97; females, 151; total, 248.
   STATE ALMS HOUSE, Monson. John M. Brewster, Superintendent. Number in alms house Oct. 1st, 1866, 176; number admitted since, including 30 births, 1,068; total, 1,244. Discharged or deserted, 827; transferred to State Primary School, 124; died, 154. Remaining Oct. 1st, 1867, males, 109; females, 130; total, 239. Whole number admitted since the opening of the institution, 16,016; number of deaths, 888; number of children indentured, adopted or placed in families, 977. Number in State Primary School, Oct. 1st, 1866, 385; admitted during the year, 334; total, 719. Discharged, 82; removed, 213; died, 6; total, 301. Remaining in the school Oct. 1st, 1867,--boys, 308; girls, 110; total, 418. Number of teachers,--males, 1; females, 6; total, 7.
   STATE ALMS HOUSE, Bridgewater. L. L. Goodspeed, Superintendent. Number in the house Oct. 1st, 1866, 311; number admitted, including 40 births, 341; number in the house during the year, 652; died, 58; discharged, 469. Remaining Oct. 1st, 1867,--males, 70; females, 55, total, 125. Work-house department, number of convicts received during the year,--males, 77; females, 175; total, 252. Died during the year, 3. Remaining Oct. 1st, 1867,--males, 55; females, 161; total, 216. Whole number in both departments, 341. Number admitted to the hospital, 363; died, 58; discharged, 248; remaining, 120.
   STATE REFORM SCHOOL, Westborough. Orville R. Hutchinson, Superintendent. Number in the school Sept. 30th, 1866, 332; committed during the year,--by the Superior Court, 17; by Probate Court, 99; total, 116; received from Nautical School, 2; apprentices returned by masters, 19; apprentices returned voluntarily, 17; having left places, 8; total received during the year, 162; whole number in the school during the year, 494. Of these were,--apprenticed, 98; released on probation, 72; transferred to Nautical School, 1, eloped, 2; died, 2; total, 175. Remaining Sept. 30th 1867, 319.
   STATE INDUSTRIAL SCHOOL FOR GIRLS, Lancaster. Marcus Ames, Superintendent. Number in the institution Oct. 1st 1866, 137; received during the year, 77; returned from indentures, 18; returned from hospital, 4; upon recommitment, 3; having no other home, 8; total, 247. Indentured during the year, 61; returned to friends, or placed at service, time having expired, 5; discharged as unsuitable, from ill health, &c., 5; discharged to parents, or good homes, 10; over 18 years of age, supplied with places, 6; sent to hospital, 3; total, 90. Remaining Oct. 1st, 1867, 157. Since the school was opened there have been received, 600; returned from indentures, 84; returned from hospital, 13; recommitted, 6; returned, having no other home, 13; total, 716; excess by returns and recommitments, 116; number of individuals, 600. Now under indenture, 81; delivered to friends, or who have completed indenture, 343; discharged as unsuitable, 53; dismissed to friends, 49; sent to hospitals and alms houses, 28; died, 3; escaped, 2; now in school, 157; total, 716; excess by returns, 116, number of individuals, 600.
   MASSACHUSETTS NAUTICAL SCHOOL. Richard Matthews, Superintendent. Number in School Ship, Oct. 1st, 1866, 258; received from State Reform School, 1; returned from probation, 8; returned voluntarily, 2; returned from desertion, 5; committed during the year, 254; whole number, 528. Number transferred to the Reform School, 2; enlisted in U. S. Navy, 2; enlisted in U. S. School Ship Sabine, 1; shipped in merchant service and whaling, 108; discharged on probation and to learn trades, 117; died, 2; sent to State Work House, 2; deserted, 7; total, 241. Remaining Oct. 1st, 1867, 287.
   SCHOOL FOR IDIOTIC AND FEBBLE MINDED YOUTH, Boston. S. G. Howe, M. D., Superintendent. This school is open to the beneficiaries of Massachusetts, and to all others of this and every state and country who will pay the cost. Since the school was opened under the corporation in 1851, applications have been made for the admission of pupils,--from Massachusetts, 345; other states, 61; other countries, 23; total, 429; of whom 363 have been admitted. There were in the school Oct. 1st, 1866, 70; received during the year, 14; total, 84. Discharged, 16; remaining Oct. 1st, 1867, 68. Average attendance since 1860, 64.


   In addition to the Workhouse at Bridgewater, which is sometimes classified as a state prison, there are thirty-eight institutions for the confinement of criminals, viz: One State Prison, 20 Jails, 16 Houses of Correction, and 1 House of Industry.

   STATE PRISON, Charlestown. Gideon Haynes, Warden. The whole number of convicts, October 1st, 1866, was 518; number received during the year, 128; number discharged,--by expiration of sentence, 91; by remission of sentence, 13; by death, 7; to Insane hospital, 1; total discharged, 112. Number of prisoners September 30th, 1867, 534; of whom 45 were between 15 and 20 years of age; 174 from 20 to 25; 108 from 25 to 30; 115 from 30 to 40; 61 fro 40 to 50; 22 from 50 to 60; and 9 from 60 to 70;--58 were sentenced 2 years,or less; 117 from 2 to 3; 145 fro 3 to 5; 112 from 5 to 10; 51 from 10 to 25; and 51 for life. The warden is required by law to keep a record of each convict, and for every month that the convict observes the rules of the prison, and is not subjected to punishment, there shall be a deduction from the term of his of his sentence, as follows: From a term of less than three years, one day; from a term of three, and less than seven years, two days; from a term of seven, and less than ten years, four days; from a term of ten years, or more, five days. 202 convicts were from Massachusetts; 149 from other states, and 183 were from foreign countries. Whole number, 646; average number, 537; total expense, $97,039.28; receipts, $118,011.10; profits, $20,971.82.
   COUNTY AND CITY PRISONS. Total number of persons remaining in confinement in county and city prisons, Sept. 30th, 1866,--males, 1,825; females, 634; total, 2,459. Number committed in 1867,--males, 8,013; females, 2,871; total, 10,884. Number of persons discharged during the year,--males, 7,906; females, 2,757; total, 10,663. Number remaining in confinement Sept. 30th, 1867,--males, 1,934; females 748; total, 2,680. In the state prison none but males are received; number of commitments, 128; of whom 108 were adults, and 20 minors. Of the whole number of prisoners, there were natives of Massachusetts, 3,125; of other states, 1,602; of other countries, 6,158. Parents both American, 2,251; parents both temperate, 7,811; parents both or either convicts, 150. Number that have had no education, 3,313; could read and write, 2,162; have had a common school education, 5,389; have had a superior education, 21; married, 4,890; were intemperate, 8,809; had property to the value of $1,000, 444; had been in army or navy, 3,139; had been in Reform school, 158. Number who had been in prison before, 4,448; committed for crimes against the person,--males, 1,118; females, 158; total, 1,276; for crimes against property,--males, 2,686; females, 505; total, 3,191; for crimes against public order and decency,--males, 4,973; females, 2,599; total, 7,572; miscellaneous causes of commitment,--males, 219; females, 22; total, 241. Expense of county prisons, $292,640.73; receipts for labor of prisoners, $73,427.34; deficit, $219,213.39. House of Industry, expenses, $59,149.87; receipts, $2,617,87; deficit, $56,532.

Receipts of State Charitable Institutions for 1867.


   The first regular census of Massachusetts was the colonial census of 1765, when the entire population was 238,425. In 1790, the United States census showed an increase in 25 years of 58.79 per cent., the greatest increase being in the western or newer portions of the state. The next census, for 1800, gave an increase of 11.63 per cent., but in Suffolk county, it was 33 per cent., and in the other eastern counties, the rate was greater than in other parts of the state. In 1865, there were 166 towns in the state, each having less population than in 1855.
   The geographical center of the state is in the city of Worcester, but more than 75 per cent. of the inhabitants are east of this place, the center of population being within two miles of the state house in the city of Boston.
   The aggregate increase for 100 years, from 1765 to 1865, was 431.14 per cent., the population at different periods being as follows:
1765 . . . . 238,423 1800 . . . . 422,845 1830 . . . . 610,408 1855 . . . . 1,132,364
1776 . . . . 293,296 1810 . . . . 472,040 1840 . . . . 737,700 1860 . . . . 1,231,066
1790 . . . . 378,787 1820 . . . . 523,287 1850 . . . . 994,514 1865 . . . . 1,267,031
   During the ten years from 1855 to 1865, the whole number of births was 337,057, of which 51.20 per cent. were males; 48.35 per cent. females, and 1.194 per cent. not states; of deaths, 231,165; excess of births, 105,892. In 1865, the number of males in the state was 597,222; of females, 659,642; excess of females, 62,420.
   Of the 1,267,031 inhabitants on the first day of June, 1865, 999,976 were born in the United States, of which number 828,156 were natives of Massachusetts, and 171,720 were born in other states and territories; 265,480 were foreign born, and the place of nativity of 1,569 persons was not stated.
   In 1850, there were 199,582 natives of Massachusetts resident in other states, and 134,830 natives of other states in Massachusetts, showing the excess of native emigration to have been 64,752. In 1860, the natives of Massachusetts in other states were 244,503; natives of other states in Massachusetts, 160,637; an excess of emigration of 83,866. In 1865, the natives of other states in Massachusetts numbered 171,720.
   Of the 265,486 foreign born returned by the census of 1865, the large number of 183,177, constituting 68.99 per cent., or more than two-thirds of the whole number of foreigners, were natives of Ireland; 32,390, or 12.18 per cent., were born in British America; 25,229, or 9.50 per cent., in England; 11,125, or 4.19 per cent., in Germany; 6,967, or 2.62 per cent., in Scotland; and 1,110, or .42 of one per cent., in France.
   There were 10,167 colored persons in the state, of whom 2,348 were in Boston, and 1,517 in New Bedford. In 58 towns, there was no colored person. The per centage of colored persons to the whole population was .8 of one per cent.
   Of persons over 20 years of age, unable to read and write, 50,110 were returned, of whom 19,134 were males, and 30,976 females. Of these, 1,012 males and 961 females were American born, and 18,122 males and 30,015 females were of foreign birth. The number of illiterate among the American born is 1.97 to 1,000; among the foreign, 181.32 to 1,000.
   Of 362,432 males employed in different occupations, there were,--of agriculturists, 59,116; factory operatives, 13,577; laborers, 52,747; mariners, 18,978; manufacturers, 3,903; mechanics, 148,604; merchants and clerks, 42,496; professional men, 9,914; miscellaneous, 13,277. The principal occupations in which females were engaged were,--domestics, 27,393; operatives, 20,152; teachers, 6,050; seamstresses, 4,381; shoe-workers, 4,110; tailoresses, 3,855; dress-makers, 3,487; straw and palm leaf workers, 2,804; and milliners, 2,388.
   The first report of the industrial statistics authorized and published by this state in 1838, exhibited an annual amount of industrial products of $86,000,000; the second, in 1845, gave $124,000,000, or an increase in 7 years of 44 per cent.; the third, in 1855, gave the amount as 295,000,000, or an increase in 10 years of 138 per cent.; and the last, in 1865, reached the sum of $517,240,613, an increase for the last decade of 74 per cent. The aggregate capital invested in 1865 was $174,499,950, giving employment to 271,421 persons engaged in manufacturing, and 68,636 in agricultural pursuits. The greatest product of cotton goods was in Bristol county, $11,836,681; of woollen goods in Worcester county, $12,917,388; of boots and shoes in Essex county, $18,011,107. In 1860, Massachusetts ranked as the first state in the manufacture of cottons, woolen goods, and boots and shoes, the value of the product of cotton being more than twice that of any other state, or more than that of all the states out of New England; in woollen goods more than twice that of any other state except Pennsylvania, and in boots and shoes more than all the other states together.
Cotton $54,436,881 $33,293.986 23,678 $26,140,538 $31,961,000 34,787
Calico and Delaine 25,258,703 4,222,000 4,208 5,213,000 1,980,000 1,157
Woolen 48,430,671 14,735,830 18,433 12,105,514 7,305,500 10,000
Paper 9,008,521 3,785,300 3,554 4,141,847 2,564,500 2,630
Rolled Iron and Nails 8,836,502 2,827,300 3,194 5,512,816 2,342,826 3,025
Printing & Newspapers 5,358,148 1,919,400 2,409 1,351,318 749,550 1,134
Clothing 17,743,894 4,634,440 24,722 9,061,896 2,770,600 1,758
Tanning and Currying 15,821,712 4,994,933 3,847 10,934,416 4,152,426 3,143
Boots and Shoes 52,915,243 0,067,474 55,160 37,489,923   74,326
Whale Fishery 6,618,670 5,879,862 3,496 7,666,996 14,546,548 11,364
Mackerel & Cod Fishery 4,832,218 3,757,761 11,518 2,829,640 3,696,436 10,551

   The value of horses, oxen and cows in 1865, was $19,154,790; of hay, $13,195,274; of beef, $118,228,859; of pork; 4,775,892; and of butter, cheese and honey, $2,265,296. Number of horses in the state, 97,244; number of cows, 144,561; number of sheep,137,352.
   CORPORATIONS. From the enactment, in 1851, of the law authorizing the corporate association of three or more persons, to January 1, 1867, or 16 years, 700 companies were organized with a capital of $115,236,983, which was increased in 1867, to $116,905,908. In that year, 87 companies were organized, with a capital of $9,721,000, and 10 companies reduced their capital $1,921,880, leaving the voted capital of 787 companies, January 1, 1868, $124,705,108, of which there remained of the capital paid in, $112,373,895.
   An act relating to the formation of co-operative associations was passed in 1866, under which 13 such associations were organized, with a capital of $64,335, divided into 8,577 shares, of which 6,690 are held by 2,152 stockholders. Nov. 1, 1867, assets, $69,603; liabilities, $41,857.
   PERIODICALS. The whole number of newspapers and periodicals in the state, in 1867, was 18 daily; 2 tri-weekly; 10 semi-weekly; 125 weekly; 1 tri-monthly; 7 bi-monthly; 42 monthly; 9 quarterly; and 5 annual; total, 219; of which 125 were in Boston.
   ASSESSMENTS. The number of taxable polls, May 1, 1867, was 315,742; amount of tax on same, $664,120. Assessed value of real estate, $708,165,117; personal estate, $457,728,296; total, $1,165,893,413. Total tax for state, town and county purposes, $19,104,074. Number of acres of land taxed, 4,429,954. Total valuation in 1868, $1,220,305,339.
   BANKS. There were, Oct. 1, 1868, 207 National Banks, with a paid up capital of $80,032,000.
   SAVINGS BANKS. Number doing business in 1867, 108; number of depositors, 48,593; increase over the previous year, 31,740; amount of deposits, $80,431,583; increase, $12,699,319; number of accounts opened during the year, 81,102; number closed, 46,084; amount of public funds held, $29,960,219; bank stock. $10,921,364; deposits in banks bearing interest, $1,524,328; loans on mortgage of real estate, $21,259,349; loans to counties and towns, $6,577,803; loans on personal security, $9,636,996. Number of Savings Banks in 1868, 115; amount of deposits, $94,838,336.54.
   INSURANCE COMPANIES. Number incorporated by the state, (not including life and accident companies), 93; number doing business in Massachusetts, but chartered in other states, 84; number of English companies doing business in the state, 4; ratio of loss in 1867,--in joint stock companies, fire loss, $4.06 on each $1,000 at risk; marine loss on same amount, $48.46; the ratio of marine losses to amount of premiums received in 1867, was 105.2 per cent. In the mutual companies, the ratio of fire loss was $1.28 on each $1,000 risk; marine loss on same amount, $46.16.


1For attendance at sessions of Executive Councils, $10 a day, and $1 for every five miles travel from place of abode. Return
2Returned to cities and towns. Return

Transcribed by: Kathy Leigh, January 10, 2001